The name Sindh is derived from the Indus River (known as Sindhu) that courses through it, and was known to the Assyrians, as early as the 7th century BC as Sinda. The Greeks who conquered Sindh in 325 BC under the command of Alexander the Great rendered it as Indos, hence the modern Indus. Indeed, the term Sindh refers to Sindhis—the inhabitants of the area and the sons of soil who speak Sindhi language.

Sindh is second largest province of Pakistan, bordered on the north-west by Baluchistan, the north by the Punjab, the south-east and east by Gujarat and Rajasthan, and the south by the Arabian Sea. Geographically Sindh stretches over 579 kilometers from north to south and 442 kilometers extreme or 281 kilometers average from east to west with an area of 140, 915 square kilometers of Pakistan’s territory.
Situated in a subtropical region, Sindh is hot in summers and cold in winters. Temperatures frequently rise above 46 46 °C (115 °F) between May and August, and the minimum average temperature of 2 °C (36 °F) occurs during December and January. The annual rainfall averages about seven inches, falling mainly during July and August.
The first known village settlements of Sindh date as far back as 7000 BC, archaeologically and historically to be known as the Indus Civilization after 4000 years after permanent settlements at Mehrgarh began to expand into Sindh, whose main hub was Moen-Jo-Daro. The Indus Valley Civilization rivaled the contemporary civilizations of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in both size and scope numbering nearly half a million inhabitants at its height with well-planned grid cities and sewerage systems.  
The 1998 population census indicated a population of 35 million, which at present is over 52 million after a compound growth in the range of 2% to 2.8% since then. Around half of the population of the province is urban dweller, mainly found in Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur, Mirpurkhas, Benazirabad, Umerkot, and Larkana.
Sindh is the major centre of economic activity in the country. It has a highly diversified economy ranging from heavy industry and finance in and around Karachi to a substantial agricultural base along the Indus. It is the second large economy in the country. Historically, Sindh’s contribution to Pakistan’s GDP has been between 30% and 32.7%. Its share in the service sector has ranged between 21% and 27% and in the agriculture sector from 21.4% to 27.7%. Since 1972, Sindh’s GDP has expanded by 3.6 times. Manufacturing includes machine products, cement, plastics, and various other goods. Agriculture is the most important sector in the province with cotton, rice, wheat, sugar cane, bananas and mangoes as the most important crops.

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